Orion Smith III
having home pages, in chronological order of graduation)
O. Smith III (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),
Stanford, California 94305.
David Wessel -CNMAT
| David Wessel Director
(510) 643 9990 x 302
1750 Arch Street
Berkeley, CA 94709
include interactive composition and performance, analysis
and synthesis of sound, music perception and cognition.
Wessel studied mathematics and experimental psychology
at the University of Illinois and received a doctorate
in mathematical psychology from Stanford in 1972. His
work on the perception and compositional control of
timbre in the early 70's at Michigan State University
led to a musical research position at IRCAM in Paris
in 1976. In 1979 he began reshaping the Pedagogy Department
to link the scientific and musical sectors of IRCAM.
In 1985 he established a new IRCAM department devoted
to the development of interactive musical software for
personal computers. In 1988 he began his current position
as Professor of Music at the University of California,
Berkeley where he is Director of CNMAT. He is particularly
interested in live-performance computer music where
improvisation plays an essential role. He has collaborated
in performance with a variety of improvising composers
including Roscoe Mitchell, Steve Coleman, Ushio Torikai,
Thomas Buckner, Vinko Globokar, Jin Hi Kim, Shafqat
Ali Khan, and Laetitia Sonami has performed throughout
the US and Europe.
CNMAT Principals and Collaborators
People involved at CNMAT are from a wide range of disciplines
and are drawn together by their common interest in exploring
the world of music. The principals are specialists in
musical composition, musical psychoacoustics and computer
science. The researchers and visiting scholars are from
many university departments including physics, mathematics,
electrical engineering, psychology, computer science,
cognitive science and music. Professional musicians
are of musical traditions ranging from middle eastern
to jazz. Composers in residence come from around the
Richard Felciano , Music composition professor emeritus,
Principals and Staff
Richard Andrews, Associate Director, Drummer, Guitarist
Edmund Campion, Composer in Residence, Composition Professor
Adrian Freed, Research Director, Computer Scientist,
David Wessel, Director,
Professor of Music
Matt Wright, Music Systems Designer, Computer Scientist,
Graduate Composers & Musicians
Anthony M. Kelley
Currently Visiting Scholars, Composers, and Musicians
Previous Visiting Scholars, Composers and Musicians
Anthony P. De Ritis
Rafael A. Irizarry
Charles R. Sullivan
| Dr. Sile O'Modhrain
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2844
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Dr. M. Sile O'Modhrain recently completed
a postdoctoral research position in the Program in Media
Arts and Sciences at the MIT Media Lab. Her research interests
focus on human-computer interaction, especially interfaces
incorporating haptic and auditory feedback. A more complete
biography is available on the main Media Lab Europe pages.
Sile O'Modhrain leads the Palpable Machines group at Media
Lab Europe. Her research focuses on human-computer interaction,
especially interfaces incorporating haptic and auditory
feedback. Her work acknowledges the complementary nature
of different sensory modalities and aims to carefully
match tasks to the sensory feedback most relevant to their
O'Modhrain earned her masters degree in Music Technology
from the University of York and her Ph.D.from Stanford
University's Center for Computer Research in Music and
Acoustics (CCRMA.) Her dissertation investigated the
potential role for haptic feedback in interfaces for
computer-based musical instruments.
embarking on her Ph.D. studies, she worked as a sound
engineer and producer for BBC Network Radio. In 1994,
she received a Fulbright Scholarship and went to Stanford
to develop a prototype haptic interface augmenting graphical
user interfaces for blind computer users. In 1998, she
received a Stanford Centennial Teaching Award in acknowledgment
of outstanding performance in teaching.
Principal Research Scientist, Palpable Machines Group
M. Sile O'Modhrain.  "Playing by Feel: Incorporating
Haptic Feedback into Computer-Based Musical Instruments.
Ph.D. Dissertation". CCRMA, Stanford University
Sile O'Modhrain and Chris Chafe.  "The Performer-Instrument
Interaction: A Sensory Motor Perspective". Proceedings
of the ICMC; ICMA, Menlo Park 2000
Sile O'Modhrain, Stefania Serafin, Chris Chafe and Julius
O. Smith III . "Qualitative and Quantitative
assesments of the Playability of a Virtual Bowed String
Instrument". Proceedings of the ICMC; ICMA, Menlo
E., Gardner J., O'Modhrain M., Hasser C & Bulatov
V.  "Web-based Touch Display for Accessible
Science Education". Haptic Human-Computer Interaction.
Springer LNCS, Vol 2058. 2000. pp 52-60.
Sile O’Modhrain and Chris Chafe.  "Incorporating
Haptic Feedback into Interfaces for Music Applications".
Proceedings of ISORA, World Automation Conference 2000
Sile O'Modhrain . "Restricted Access: Exploritory
Procedures and Object Properties". Proceedings
of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress:
Dynamic Systems and Control Division, Vol. 2 (Haptic
Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator
Systems) DSC-Vol. 61.
Brent Gillespie, M. Sile O'Modhrain, et al. .
"The Virtual Teacher". Proceedings of the
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress:
Dynamic Systems and Control Division, Vol. 2 (Haptic
Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator
Systems) DSC-Vol. 60.
Chafe and M.S. O'Modhrain. 1996. "Musical Muscle
Memory and the Haptic Display of Performance Nuance".
Proceedings of the ICMC, ICMA, Menlo Park, California,
O'Modhrain and R.B. Gillespie.  "Haptic User
Interfaces for the Blind". STANM--95. Stanford,
| Jussi Angesleva
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Jussi Ängeslevä was born in Finland and studied
his BA in Audio Visual Media Culture at the University
of Lapland. Simultaneously, he worked at the university’s
research center concentrating on Group Virtual Reality
and merging synthetic and physical spaces. After co-founding
a new media consultancy Prosopon Ltd. he took place at
the Royal College of Art in London graduating from Interaction
Design in the summer 2002. Jussi’s interest lies in designing
digital systems with strong physical presence, systems
where much of the meaning flows directly from the embodied
interaction, its feel and touch, smell and texture, weight
and dimensions. The digital content is to be matched with
contingent physical manifestation that makes the interaction
instantly meaningful and intuitive.
work has been exhibited internationally at events and
venues such as Siggraph’99 (US), Kiasma Museum of Modern
Art (Finland), Art Basel (Switzerland), Museum De Serralves
(Portugal), International Browserday (Netherlands) over
the last 4 years. In 2002 Jussi has been awarded the
RSA student award and The Lattice Group Award.
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2831
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Andy Brady is a toy maker, artist and inventor.
He is involved in building the physical interfaces for
the Palpable Machines group. His mechanical/ workshop
skills were taught to him by Sam Mackenzie, his granddad,
himself an inventor/ engineer. Andy’s work in toy design
strives to impart the principles of physics through the
fun of play. Where children get to perform an action (pull
a lever, turn a handle etc.) and see the reaction caused.
A central focus of this work is to educate through the
sense of touch. His artistic pursuits focus on kinetic
sculpture and installations based on the themes of circus,
carnival and sideshow. Over the last 10 years he has worked
in the areas of sales and marketing, television production,
heavy industrial lifting equipment, woodworking and surveillance.
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2836
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Cormac is an electronic engineer and musician.
A graduate of NUI, Galway, he was awarded a first class
honours degree in Electronic Engineering in 2000 for which
he was presented with the class prize and selected as
a recipient of the IEE award. He subsequently spent a
year working as a DSP development engineer with Massana
Ltd., a fabless semiconductor company specialising in
solutions for the communications industry, before joining
MIT MediaLabEurope as a research fellow in October of
2001. He has been playing Irish traditional music on tin-whistle
and uilleann pipes from an early age, has toured in Europe
and further afield and performs regularly in Ireland.
His main professional experience has been in digital design,
but he has recently begun to explore an interest in signal
processing and the creation and control of physical synthesis
models of musical instruments.
| Stephen Hughes
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2864
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Stephen Hughes recieved his Bsc(Eng) from
TCD in 1998, but has been working as an electronic design
engineer since 1993 in both SMPS and Audio industries.
He is also involved in computer music (composotion and
hardware), and DJ's professionally in several nightclubs.
He has recently completed the design and production of
a professional audio mixing console with his own spare
time and resources, which has met great acclaim from many
audio industry professionals. He has a patent pending
on a particular feature of the mixing console.
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2838
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Ian graduated from the University of Glasgow
with a first class joint honours degree in Computing Science
and Psychology, and was awarded the class prize in Computing
Science. In 1998 he began his PhD, focusing on the use
of haptics as a modality for interaction. During the next
three years he brought his psychology skills to bear on
the issues involved in a diverse set of haptic domains.
These ranged from the development of guidelines for the
design of usable haptic displays of complex information,
to evaluating the affect that communication through touch
exerts on subjective feelings of presence and connectedness
among users of distributed collaborative systems. He joined
the Palpable Machines group at MIT Media Lab Europe as
a research associate in November 2001.
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2855
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Details to follow.
bio: In 1994 Brian McDonald began an electrical
and electronic degree course in Dublin Institute of Technology.
The following year he joined industry as an analogue design
engineer with a custom electronics design company based
in Dublin. After spending 3 years in this role he returned
to Dublin Institute of Technology to complete his degree
and graduated with a first class honours degree in 2001.
His main experience is in low level analogue design but
has also an interest in biomedical applications, digital
audio and sensors. He joined MIT Media Lab Europe in July 2001 as a research fellow and
worked with the Mindgames
and Palpable Machines groups. Brian left the lab in spring
2002 to travel.
Professor Y. W. Lam
of the Acoustics Research Centre
of Acoustics and Electronic Engineering,
University of Salford, UK
Salford, M5 4WT.
+44 (0)161 295 5684
Fax: +44 (0)161 295 5427
101, Brindley Building.
Telephone Extension: 55684
Areas of Expertise
Acoustics, Environmental Acoustics, Industrial Noise, Computer Modelling.
and Environmental Acoustics Forum (BEAF) (EPSRC Grant GR/N27378/01,
fundamental study of meteorological conditions and their influences
on outdoor sound propagation (EPSRC Grant GR/M71459, 1999-2002)
of Aircraft Noise by Nacelle Treatment and Active Control (RANNTAC)
(Partner in a consortium of 20) (Commission of European Communities,
of a good practice guide on the measurement of environmental noise
(Project MPU 8/55.4, DTI, 1999-2000)
influence of surface diffusion on the acoustics of Javanese Gamelan
concert hall (PhD, 1/99-1/02)
evaluation of the effectiveness of auralisation in concert hall
design (MSc, 10/99-10/00)
for Enhancing Energy Flow - a New Sound Absorption Mechanism (EPSRC
Grant GR/L34396, 11/97-10/2000)
Lam receiving the Tyndall Medal from the Institute of Acoustics
in November 2000
Publications (since 1996)
Davies W.J., Cox T.J., Lam Y.W., "Subjective perception of
seat dip attenuation", Acustica 82, 784-792 (1996)
Lam Y.W., "The noise transmission through profiled metal cladding,
part iii: double skin SRI prediction", Journal of Building
Acoustics Vol.2(2), p.403-417, 1996
Lam Y.W., "A comparison of three diffuse reflection modelling
methods used in room acoustics computer models", J. Acous.
Soc. Am. 100(4), p.2181-2192, 1996
Lam Y.W., "The dependence of diffusion parameters in a room
acoustics prediction model on auditorium sizes and shapes",
J. Acous. Soc. Am. 100(4), p.2193-2203, 1996
Lam Y. W., “Standard Calculation of Outdoor Noise Propagation -
Errors due to Propagation Effect”, Journal of Building Acoustics
Vol.3(4), p.251-263, 1996.
Lam Y.W., “On the modelling of diffuse reflections in room acoustics
prediction”, Referred Invited Paper, Proc. BEPAC & EPSRC Conference
on Sustainable Building, p.106-113, 1997
Lam Y.W., “A boundary integral formulation for the prediction of
acoustic scattering from periodic structures”, Invited paper, IMA
Conference on Boundary Integral Methods, September 1997
T J Hargreaves, T J Cox, Y W Lam, P D'Antonio, “Diffusion parameters
for auditorium surfaces”, Proc IoA(UK) Vol 19(3) 1997 19-27.
Lam Y. W., “Prediction of Noise Transmission through Commercial
Profiled Metal Cladding Systems”, Invited paper, Proc. 16th International
Congress on Acoustics and 135th Meeting Acoustical Society of America,
Seattle WA, Vol. II, pp.1383-1384, June 1998.
T J Hargreaves, T J Cox, Y W Lam, P D'Antonio, “Characterising Scattering
From Room Surfaces”, Proc. 16th International Congress on Acoustics
and 135th Meeting Acoustical Society of America, Seattle WA, Vol.
IV, pp2731-2732, June 1998.
P D'Antonio, T J Hargreaves, T J Cox and Y W Lam, “Experimental
Measurement and Characterization of Scattering Surfaces”, J.Acoust.Soc.Am.
104 no.3 pt. 2 September 1998 pg 1857. 136th meeting ASA paper 5aAA3.
T J Hargreaves, T J Cox, Y W Lam and P D'Antonio, “Diffusion Coefficients”,
J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 104 no.3 pt. 2 September 1998 pg 1857. 136th meeting
ASA paper 5aAA5.
Lam Y. W., “A boundary integral formulation for the prediction of
acoustic scattering from periodic structures”, J. Acous. Soc. Am.
105(2), p.762-769, 1999.
Lam Y. W. and Drumm I., “An adaptive beam tracing method for room
acoustics prediction”, invited paper, Joint ASA/EAA/DEGA Conference,
Berlin, March 1999, Acustica Vol.85 Supplement 1, S64, 1999
Lam Y. W., “Sound propagation in the atmosphere”, invited paper,
Proc. Of the 6th International Congress on Sound and Vibration,
Howarth M. and Lam Y. W. “An assessment of the accuracy of a hybrid
room acoustics model with surface diffusion facility”, Applied Acoustics
60(2), pp.237-252, 2000.
Lam Y. W., “Editorial - Special Issue on surface diffusion in room
acoustics”, Applied Acoustics 60(2), pp.111-112, 2000.
Drumm I. A. and Lam Y. W., “The adaptive beam tracing algorithm”,
J. Acous. Soc. Am. 107(3), pp.1405-1412, 2000.
Sarwono J., Lam Y. W., “Auto-correlation Function Analysis of Javanese
Gamelan Music Pieces”, ISSM 1999 (8-9 October 1999, Kassel, Germany).
Hargreaves T. J., Cox T. J., Lam Y. W., D'Antoni P., “Standard Diffusion
Coefficients”, Proc. IoA(UK). 21(6) 195-200. October 1999.
Sarwono J., Lam Y. W., “Initial Time Delay Gap for Javanese Gamelan
Music Concert Hall: An Auto-correlation Function Approach”, Proc.
IoA(UK). 21(6) 47-54. October 1999.
Drumm I. A., Lam Y. W., “The adaptive beaming tracing algorithm”,
Proc. IoA(UK). 21(6) 73-92. October 1999.
Lam Y.W., “An Overview of Modelling Techniques for Small and Large
Performance Spaces”, Proc. IOA 22 Part 2, pp.297-304, 2000
Sarwono S. J. and Lam Y. W.,”The Acoustics of a Pendopo: A Typical
Open-Sided Hall for Javanese Gamelan Music Performance”, Proc. IOA
22 Part 2, pp.305-314, 2000
Wu T.,Cox T. J., Lam Y. W., “From a profiled diffuser to an optimized
absorber”, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 108(2), pp.643-650, 2000.
West M. and Lam Y. W., “Prediction of sound fields in the presence
of terrain features which produce a range dependent meteorology
using the Generalised Terrain Parabolic Equation (GT-PE) model”,
Wu T., Lam Y. W., Cox T. J., “Extending the bandwidth of profiled
sound absorbers”, Internoise 2000.
West M. and Lam Y. W., “A two way vertical interface Parabolic Equation
(TV-PE) model for atmospheric propagation in the presence of severe
terrain features”, 9th International Symposium on Long Range Sound
Propagation, September 2000
Lam Y. W., "Ground and Meteorological Effects on Sound Propagation
in the Atmosphere - Predictions and Measurements", International
Journal of Acoustics and Vibration Vol. 5(3), pp.135-139, 2000.
Hargreaves T. J., Cox T. J., Lam Y. W. and D'Antonio P., “Surface
Diffusion Coefficients for Room Acoustics: Free Field Measures”,
J. Acous. Soc. Am. 108 (4), pp.1710-1720, 2000.
Sarwono S. J. and Lam Y. W., “Subjective Preference of Reverberation
Time in a Javanese Gamelan Concert Hall”, ISSM 2000, October 2000,
Sarwono S. J. and Lam Y. W., “Subjective Preference of Initial Time
Delay Gap in a Javanese Gamelan Concert Hall”, 140th ASA Meeting,
paper 5pAA2, Newport Beach, CA, December 2000.
2002-5th October Featured: Andreyev
Nikolay Nikolayevich Andreyev was born in 1880 in Moscow
to a family of an office employee.
N. Andreyev entered the Moscow Higher Technical College in the fall
of 1898, and he left it for the Moscow University in 1989,
where he became a second-year student.
N. Andreyev continued his education at the Goettingen University
in Germany in summer 1904, and, later, at the Basel University.
N. Andreyev presented his PhD thesis on "Theoretical and Experimental
Studies of the Effect of Temperature on Light Dispersion" in
N. Andreyev was awarded as a magister from the Scientific council
of the Moscow University in September 1917.
N. Andreyev became the head of the Acoustical laboratory at the
State Experimental Electrotechnical Institute in Moscow in 1921.
N. Andreyev published his review on physiological acoustics under
the title "Keenness of Hearing" in 1924. The review
appeared in the first issue of "Zhurnal prikladnoi fiziki" (Journal
of Applied Physics).
published his book "Fizika" (Physics) intended for nonprofessional
readers in 1925.
1926, Andreyev worked at the Leningrad Physicotechnical laboratory
under the supervision of A. F. Ioffe. Here, Andreyev established
a new Acoustical laboratory.
summer 1928 he was sent together with a group of scientists
from State Physicotechnical Institute to Germany, France, and Netherlands
to become acquainted with the design of acoustic transducers and
other achievements in piezoelectricity - a new and promising area
of research at that time.
27-30 September 1931, the first All-Russian Acoustical
conference was held in Leningrad. The conference was initiated by
N. N. Andreyev and played an important role in the development of
1940, Andreyev was invited by Academician S. I. Vavilov,
director of the Lebedev Physical Institute, to fill the position
of head of the new Acoustical laboratory organized at this institute.
Andreyev accepted this invitation, and soon the leading acousticians
from all Soviet Union gathered at his laboratory. In the early 1950 s,
the laboratory represented in fact an independent institution. It
occupied a new separate building that contained acoustic chambers
and first-class equipment.
1953, N. N. Andreyev was elected member of the Academy
of Sciences of the USSR. In the same year, he became a member
of the International Acoustical Commission.
late 1953, the Acoustics Institute was established on the
basis of the Acoustical laboratory of the Lebedev Physical Institute.
The first director of the Acoustics Institute was L. M. Brekhovskikh
- Andreyev's closest ally and colleague. Andreyev himself headed
the laboratory specializing in biophysics of human and animal hearing.
1954, Andreyev became the editor-in-chief of the "Akusticheskii
zhurnal" (Physical Acoustics). This journal was established
to replace the previous "Trudy Komissii po akustike" according
to Andreyev's recommendations.
27 July 1970, Andreyev was given the title of Hero
of Socialist Labor and received his third Lenin order and the medal
of Hammer and Sickle. Such distinguished award given to Andreyev
at the day of his 90th birthday marked the recognition of the great
services done by Academician Andreyev to Soviet acoustics.
December 31, 1970 Nikolai Nikolaevich Andreyev passed away.
N. Andreyev was the founder of the school of Soviet acousticians,
and the Acoustics Institute was named after him.
August 2002: Featured: Prof. MAtti Karjalainen...
Address: Helsinki University
Laboratory of Acoustics and Audio Signal Processing
P.O. Box 3000
Visiting address Otakaari 5 A, 02150 Espoo
Room SE 211
Phone +358-9-451 2490
Fax +358-9-460 224
Personal and professional history
Hankasalmi, Finland, April 2, 1946.
M.Sc. (Dipl.Eng.): Tampere University of Technology, 1970 in Electrical
Lic. Tech. : Tampere University of Technology, 1974 in Electrical
PhD (Dr. Tech.): Tampere University of Technology, 1978 in Electrical
Associate professor : Helsinki University of Technology, 1980 in
Docent (any idea what it means?) Tampere University of Technology,
since 1982 in Speech Technology
Full professor: Helsinki University of Technology, since 1986 in
profile (project leader and personal reasearch topics)
synthesis projects (Finnish text-to-speech synthesis), 1973-80,
Applications of speech technology to the disabled, 1974-80, 1987-89
Auditory modeling and its applications, 1981-86
Symbolic and knowledge-based signal processing, 1986-91
Programming environments for digital signal processing, 1980-82,
Speech recognition (Finnish), 1988-89, 1990-93
Applications of neural networks in speech, audio, and acoustics,
Speech database development (Finnish), 1992-
Modeling of spatial hearing and auralization, 1991-
Modeling of musical instruments and model-based sound synthesis,
Computer-based education in acoustics and signal processing, 1993-
Various other topics in acoustics, speech, signal processing, and
in scientific organizations:
of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
Acoustical Society of America (ASA)
Audio Engineering Society (AES)
International Computer Music Assiciation (ICMA)
European Acoustics Association (EAA)
Acoustical Society of Finland (Chairman 1985-89 and 1991-94)
Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society (Board member)
Electronic Engineering Society of Finland
Pattern Recognition Society of Finland
Biomedical Engineering Society of Finland
2002: Featured: Max Mathews ...
Max V. Mathews email@example.com was born in Columbus,
Nebraska, on November 13, 1926. He studied electrical engineering
at the California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology receiving a Sc.D. in 1954.
worked in acoustic research at AT&T Bell Laboratories from
1955 to 1987 where he directed the Behavioral and Acoustic Research
Center. This laboratory carried out research in speech communication,
visual communication, human memory and learning, programmed instruction,
analysis of subjective opinions, physical acoustics, and industrial
1974 to 1980 he was the Scientific Advisor to the Institute de
Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM), Paris, France.
In 1987 Mathews joined the Stanford University Music Department
in the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA)
as Professor of Music (Research) where he developed a new pickup
for electronic violins and a real-time computer system for music
performance called the Conductor and Improv Programs and a 3D
MIDI Controller called the Radio Baton.
Bell Labs in 1957, Mathews demonstrated synthesis of music on
a digital computer with his Music I program. Music I was followed
by Music II through Music V and GROOVE, all were involved in the
composition and performance of music on and with computers. These
programs have been influential in the development of computer
music. For this pioneering work he has been called the "father
of computer music," and most recently, "the great grandfather
Mathews has conducted research on computer methods for speech
processing, human speech production and auditory masking, and
developed techniques for computer drawing of typography. He created
the first computer singing, "Bicycle Built for Two,"
made famous by the Kubrick movie 2001 as the swan song of the
dying computer. The developer of "Music V" synthesis
software and "Groove," the first computer system for
live performance, he is also the inventor of the Radio Baton,
a computer-driven device that allows the user to conduct their
own orchestral performances from MIDI files stored in the computer.
This gives the user control over tempo, dynamics and balance among
all the orchestral instruments. The commercial software product
"Max" was based on Mathews’ ideas for a flexible, user-patchable
sound generating system.
is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National
Academy of Engineering and is a fellow in the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences, the Acoustical Society of America, the IEEE,
and the Audio Engineering Society.
the more idiosyncratic forms of recognition he has received, Mathews’
Electronic Violin was featured recently on the cover of Playboy
magazine. He has won the IEEE Gold Medal, Acoustical Society of
America Silver Medal, and the Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et
Lettres, République Française.
of Computer Music According to Mathews Max Mathews wrote the following
summary of his work in computer music for "Horizons in Computer
Music", an event that took place March 8-9, 1997 at the Simon
Recital Center of the School of Music, Indiana University, Bloomington,
performance of music was born in 1957 when an IBM 704 in NYC played
a 17 second composition on the Music I program which I wrote.
The timbres and notes were not inspiring, but the technical breakthrough
is still reverberating. Music I led me to Music II through V.
A host of others wrote Music 10, Music 360, Music 15, Csound,
Cmix, and SuperCollider. Many exciting pieces are now performed
IBM 704 and its siblings were strictly studio machines--they were
far too slow to synthesize music in real-time. Chowning's FM algorithms
and the advent of fast, inexpensive, digital chips made real-time
possible, and equally important, made it affordable.
with the Groove program in 1970, my interests have focused on
live performance and what a computer can do to aid a performer.
I made a controller, the Radio-Baton, plus a program, the Conductor
Program, to provide new ways for interpreting and performing traditional
scores. In addition to contemporary composers, these proved attractive
to soloists as a way of playing orchestral accompaniments. Singers
often prefer to play their own accompaniments.
I have added improvizational options which make it easy to write
compositional algorithms. These can involve precomposed sequences,
random functions, and live performance gestures. The algorithms
are written in the "C" language. We have taught a course
in this area to Stanford undergraduates for two years. To our
happy surprise, the students liked learning and using "C".
Primarily I believe it gives them a feeling of complete power
to command the computer to do anything it is capable of doing."
of the Many Legends... Max Mathews spent the majority of his career
at Bell Labs as an engineer, conducting behavioral and acoustic
research. Legend has it that in the 1950's Max Mathews would pipe
the music of his late night computer noodling through the Murray
Hill labs intercom system. There's no information on the effect
it had on the custodial staff, but it would hardly have raised
an eyebrow in the collaborative research community of the time.
Mathews' music was not an "official" AT&T project
-- but he was allowed free access to any equipment he wanted to
use on his "socially desirable" side project.
- Radio Batons! MARMAX
223 Precita Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94110