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F  I  N  D

Julius Orion Smith III

Curriculum Vitae

 Education  Work Experience  Honors  Publications List  Music

Selected Works


Ph.D. Students

(those having home pages, in chronological order of graduation)
  Perry Cook   Gary Scavone   Scott Levine   Dave Berners   Yoon Kim   Stefan Bilbao   Hui-Ling Lu

Related Topics


Julius O. Smith III (jos@ccrma.stanford.edu),
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),
Music Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305.

David Wessel -CNMAT 
Image: Picture of Dr Sile O'ModhrainDavid Wessel Director
(510) 643 9990 x 302
1750 Arch Street
Berkeley, CA 94709


Interests include interactive composition and performance, analysis and synthesis of sound, music perception and cognition.

David Wessel studied mathematics and experimental psychology at the University of Illinois and received a doctorate in mathematical psychology from Stanford in 1972. His work on the perception and compositional control of timbre in the early 70's at Michigan State University led to a musical research position at IRCAM in Paris in 1976. In 1979 he began reshaping the Pedagogy Department to link the scientific and musical sectors of IRCAM. In 1985 he established a new IRCAM department devoted to the development of interactive musical software for personal computers. In 1988 he began his current position as Professor of Music at the University of California, Berkeley where he is Director of CNMAT. He is particularly interested in live-performance computer music where improvisation plays an essential role. He has collaborated in performance with a variety of improvising composers including Roscoe Mitchell, Steve Coleman, Ushio Torikai, Thomas Buckner, Vinko Globokar, Jin Hi Kim, Shafqat Ali Khan, and Laetitia Sonami has performed throughout the US and Europe.
CNMAT Principals and Collaborators
People involved at CNMAT are from a wide range of disciplines and are drawn together by their common interest in exploring the world of music. The principals are specialists in musical composition, musical psychoacoustics and computer science. The researchers and visiting scholars are from many university departments including physics, mathematics, electrical engineering, psychology, computer science, cognitive science and music. Professional musicians are of musical traditions ranging from middle eastern to jazz. Composers in residence come from around the world.

CNMAT's Founder
Richard Felciano , Music composition professor emeritus, UC Berkeley
Principals and Staff
Richard Andrews, Associate Director, Drummer, Guitarist
Edmund Campion, Composer in Residence, Composition Professor
Adrian Freed, Research Director, Computer Scientist, Psychoacoustics Guitarist
David Wessel, Director, Professor of Music
Matt Wright, Music Systems Designer, Computer Scientist, Musician
Graduate Researchers
Rimas Avizienis
Todd Hodes
Ali Momeni
Graduate Composers & Musicians
Anthony M. Kelley
Keeril Makan
Ali Momeni
Undergraduate Students
Ahm Lee
Currently Visiting Scholars, Composers, and Musicians
Dominique Richard
John Schott
Ron Smith
Web Designer
Eleanor Ronaele
John Campion
C.K Ladzekpo
Silvia Matheus
Previous Visiting Scholars, Composers and Musicians

Daniel Arfib
Vito Asta
Robin Bargar
Will Bernard
Insook Choi
Steve Coleman
Salvador Comalada
Cyril Drame
Guillermo Garcia
Guy Garnett
Mark Goldstein
Keith Gordon
Alan Goye
Fernando Iazzetta
David Jaffe
Tristan Jehan
Sukandar Kartadinata
Mari Kimura
Jin Hi Kim
Pierre Korzilius
Ron Kuivila
Chris Lennard
George Lewis
Ligeti, György

Norbert Lindlbauer
Hugh Livingston
Andreas Luecke
Eric Metois
Roberto Morales
Giovanni Mueller
Chris Muir
Pablo Ortiz
Steven Pope
Ville Pulkki
Jean-Claude Risset
Xavier Rodet
Butch Rovan
Greg Sandell
Michael Senturia
Marie-Helene Serra
Eric Singer
Ron Smith
Laetitia Sonami
Takahiko Suzuki
Hilmar Thordarson
Ushio Torikai
Nicolas Verin
Bruce Bennett
Louise Bidwell
Amar Chaudhary
Steven Clark
John Cooper
Anthony P. De Ritis
Michael Goodwin
Georg Hajdu
Rafael A. Irizarry
Vijay Iyer
Sami Khoury
Michael Lee
Brian Link
Eric Marty
Silvia Matheus
Tom Parks
Alan Peevers
Sam Pointer
Charles R. Sullivan
Michael Zbyszynski

Palpable Machines Group Members 
Image: Picture of Dr Sile O'Modhrain Dr. Sile O'Modhrain
email: sile@media.mit.edu
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2844
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Dr. M. Sile O'Modhrain recently completed a postdoctoral research position in the Program in Media Arts and Sciences at the MIT Media Lab. Her research interests focus on human-computer interaction, especially interfaces incorporating haptic and auditory feedback. A more complete biography is available on the main Media Lab Europe pages. or below:
Sile O'Modhrain leads the Palpable Machines group at Media Lab Europe. Her research focuses on human-computer interaction, especially interfaces incorporating haptic and auditory feedback. Her work acknowledges the complementary nature of different sensory modalities and aims to carefully match tasks to the sensory feedback most relevant to their successful completion.

Dr. O'Modhrain earned her masters degree in Music Technology from the University of York and her Ph.D.from Stanford University's Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA.) Her dissertation investigated the potential role for haptic feedback in interfaces for computer-based musical instruments.

Before embarking on her Ph.D. studies, she worked as a sound engineer and producer for BBC Network Radio. In 1994, she received a Fulbright Scholarship and went to Stanford to develop a prototype haptic interface augmenting graphical user interfaces for blind computer users. In 1998, she received a Stanford Centennial Teaching Award in acknowledgment of outstanding performance in teaching.

Sile O'Modhrain
Principal Research Scientist, Palpable Machines Group

M. Sile O'Modhrain. [2000] "Playing by Feel: Incorporating Haptic Feedback into Computer-Based Musical Instruments. Ph.D. Dissertation". CCRMA, Stanford University 2000

M. Sile O'Modhrain and Chris Chafe. [2000] "The Performer-Instrument Interaction: A Sensory Motor Perspective". Proceedings of the ICMC; ICMA, Menlo Park 2000

M. Sile O'Modhrain, Stefania Serafin, Chris Chafe and Julius O. Smith III [2000]. "Qualitative and Quantitative assesments of the Playability of a Virtual Bowed String Instrument". Proceedings of the ICMC; ICMA, Menlo Park 2000

Wies E., Gardner J., O'Modhrain M., Hasser C & Bulatov V. [2000] "Web-based Touch Display for Accessible Science Education". Haptic Human-Computer Interaction. Springer LNCS, Vol 2058. 2000. pp 52-60.

M. Sile O’Modhrain and Chris Chafe. [2000] "Incorporating Haptic Feedback into Interfaces for Music Applications". Proceedings of ISORA, World Automation Conference 2000

M. Sile O'Modhrain [1999]. "Restricted Access: Exploritory Procedures and Object Properties". Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress: Dynamic Systems and Control Division, Vol. 2 (Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems) DSC-Vol. 61.

R. Brent Gillespie, M. Sile O'Modhrain, et al. [1998]. "The Virtual Teacher". Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress: Dynamic Systems and Control Division, Vol. 2 (Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems) DSC-Vol. 60.

C. Chafe and M.S. O'Modhrain. 1996. "Musical Muscle Memory and the Haptic Display of Performance Nuance". Proceedings of the ICMC, ICMA, Menlo Park, California, 1996

M.S. O'Modhrain and R.B. Gillespie. [1995] "Haptic User Interfaces for the Blind". STANM--95. Stanford, California. 1995.

Image: Picture of Jussi Angesleva Jussi Angesleva
email: jussi@mle.media.mit.edu
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Jussi Ängeslevä was born in Finland and studied his BA in Audio Visual Media Culture at the University of Lapland. Simultaneously, he worked at the university’s research center concentrating on Group Virtual Reality and merging synthetic and physical spaces. After co-founding a new media consultancy Prosopon Ltd. he took place at the Royal College of Art in London graduating from Interaction Design in the summer 2002. Jussi’s interest lies in designing digital systems with strong physical presence, systems where much of the meaning flows directly from the embodied interaction, its feel and touch, smell and texture, weight and dimensions. The digital content is to be matched with contingent physical manifestation that makes the interaction instantly meaningful and intuitive.

His work has been exhibited internationally at events and venues such as Siggraph’99 (US), Kiasma Museum of Modern Art (Finland), Art Basel (Switzerland), Museum De Serralves (Portugal), International Browserday (Netherlands) over the last 4 years. In 2002 Jussi has been awarded the RSA student award and The Lattice Group Award.

Image: Picture of Andy Brady Andy Brady
email: andy@mle.media.mit.edu
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2831
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Andy Brady is a toy maker, artist and inventor. He is involved in building the physical interfaces for the Palpable Machines group. His mechanical/ workshop skills were taught to him by Sam Mackenzie, his granddad, himself an inventor/ engineer. Andy’s work in toy design strives to impart the principles of physics through the fun of play. Where children get to perform an action (pull a lever, turn a handle etc.) and see the reaction caused. A central focus of this work is to educate through the sense of touch. His artistic pursuits focus on kinetic sculpture and installations based on the themes of circus, carnival and sideshow. Over the last 10 years he has worked in the areas of sales and marketing, television production, heavy industrial lifting equipment, woodworking and surveillance.
Image: Picture of Cormac Cannon Cormac Cannon
email: cormac@media.mit.edu
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2836
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Cormac is an electronic engineer and musician. A graduate of NUI, Galway, he was awarded a first class honours degree in Electronic Engineering in 2000 for which he was presented with the class prize and selected as a recipient of the IEE award. He subsequently spent a year working as a DSP development engineer with Massana Ltd., a fabless semiconductor company specialising in solutions for the communications industry, before joining MIT MediaLabEurope as a research fellow in October of 2001. He has been playing Irish traditional music on tin-whistle and uilleann pipes from an early age, has toured in Europe and further afield and performs regularly in Ireland. His main professional experience has been in digital design, but he has recently begun to explore an interest in signal processing and the creation and control of physical synthesis models of musical instruments.
Image: Picture of Stephen Hughes Stephen Hughes
email: steveh@mle.media.mit.edu
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2864
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Stephen Hughes recieved his Bsc(Eng) from TCD in 1998, but has been working as an electronic design engineer since 1993 in both SMPS and Audio industries. He is also involved in computer music (composotion and hardware), and DJ's professionally in several nightclubs. He has recently completed the design and production of a professional audio mixing console with his own spare time and resources, which has met great acclaim from many audio industry professionals. He has a patent pending on a particular feature of the mixing console.
Image: Picture of Ian Oakley Ian Oakley
email: ian@mle.media.mit.edu
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2838
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Ian graduated from the University of Glasgow with a first class joint honours degree in Computing Science and Psychology, and was awarded the class prize in Computing Science. In 1998 he began his PhD, focusing on the use of haptics as a modality for interaction. During the next three years he brought his psychology skills to bear on the issues involved in a diverse set of haptic domains. These ranged from the development of guidelines for the design of usable haptic displays of complex information, to evaluating the affect that communication through touch exerts on subjective feelings of presence and connectedness among users of distributed collaborative systems. He joined the Palpable Machines group at MIT Media Lab Europe as a research associate in November 2001.
Image: Picture of Cati Vaucelle Cati Vaucelle
email: cati@media.mit.edu
phone: +353 (0)1 474 2855
fax: +353 (0)1 474 2809
bio: Details to follow.
Image: Picture of Brian McDonald Brian McDonald
email: solid@media.mit.edu
bio: In 1994 Brian McDonald began an electrical and electronic degree course in Dublin Institute of Technology. The following year he joined industry as an analogue design engineer with a custom electronics design company based in Dublin. After spending 3 years in this role he returned to Dublin Institute of Technology to complete his degree and graduated with a first class honours degree in 2001. His main experience is in low level analogue design but has also an interest in biomedical applications, digital audio and sensors. He joined MIT Media Lab Europe in July 2001 as a research fellow and worked with the Mindgames
and Palpable Machines groups. Brian left the lab in spring 2002 to travel.

Professor Y. W. Lam

Director of the Acoustics Research Centre

E-mail: Y.W.Lam@salford.ac.uk

School of Acoustics and Electronic Engineering,
University of Salford, UK
Salford, M5 4WT.
Telephone: +44 (0)161 295 5684
Fax: +44 (0)161 295 5427
Room 101, Brindley Building.
Internal Telephone Extension: 55684


Areas of Expertise

Building Acoustics, Environmental Acoustics, Industrial Noise, Computer Modelling.

Current Research Projects:

  • Building and Environmental Acoustics Forum (BEAF) (EPSRC Grant GR/N27378/01, 2000-2003)
  • A fundamental study of meteorological conditions and their influences on outdoor sound propagation (EPSRC Grant GR/M71459, 1999-2002)
  • Reduction of Aircraft Noise by Nacelle Treatment and Active Control (RANNTAC) (Partner in a consortium of 20) (Commission of European Communities, 1/98-1/2001)
  • Development of a good practice guide on the measurement of environmental noise (Project MPU 8/55.4, DTI, 1999-2000)
  • The influence of surface diffusion on the acoustics of Javanese Gamelan concert hall (PhD, 1/99-1/02)
  • Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of auralisation in concert hall design (MSc, 10/99-10/00)
  • Techniques for Enhancing Energy Flow - a New Sound Absorption Mechanism (EPSRC Grant GR/L34396, 11/97-10/2000)

    Professor Lam receiving the Tyndall Medal from the Institute of Acoustics in November 2000

Recent Publications (since 1996)

1. Davies W.J., Cox T.J., Lam Y.W., "Subjective perception of seat dip attenuation", Acustica 82, 784-792 (1996)

2. Lam Y.W., "The noise transmission through profiled metal cladding, part iii: double skin SRI prediction", Journal of Building Acoustics Vol.2(2), p.403-417, 1996

3. Lam Y.W., "A comparison of three diffuse reflection modelling methods used in room acoustics computer models", J. Acous. Soc. Am. 100(4), p.2181-2192, 1996

4. Lam Y.W., "The dependence of diffusion parameters in a room acoustics prediction model on auditorium sizes and shapes", J. Acous. Soc. Am. 100(4), p.2193-2203, 1996

5. Lam Y. W., “Standard Calculation of Outdoor Noise Propagation - Errors due to Propagation Effect”, Journal of Building Acoustics Vol.3(4), p.251-263, 1996.

6. Lam Y.W., “On the modelling of diffuse reflections in room acoustics prediction”, Referred Invited Paper, Proc. BEPAC & EPSRC Conference on Sustainable Building, p.106-113, 1997

7. Lam Y.W., “A boundary integral formulation for the prediction of acoustic scattering from periodic structures”, Invited paper, IMA Conference on Boundary Integral Methods, September 1997

8. T J Hargreaves, T J Cox, Y W Lam, P D'Antonio, “Diffusion parameters for auditorium surfaces”, Proc IoA(UK) Vol 19(3) 1997 19-27.

9. Lam Y. W., “Prediction of Noise Transmission through Commercial Profiled Metal Cladding Systems”, Invited paper, Proc. 16th International Congress on Acoustics and 135th Meeting Acoustical Society of America, Seattle WA, Vol. II, pp.1383-1384, June 1998.

10. T J Hargreaves, T J Cox, Y W Lam, P D'Antonio, “Characterising Scattering From Room Surfaces”, Proc. 16th International Congress on Acoustics and 135th Meeting Acoustical Society of America, Seattle WA, Vol. IV, pp2731-2732, June 1998.

11. P D'Antonio, T J Hargreaves, T J Cox and Y W Lam, “Experimental Measurement and Characterization of Scattering Surfaces”, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 104 no.3 pt. 2 September 1998 pg 1857. 136th meeting ASA paper 5aAA3.

12. T J Hargreaves, T J Cox, Y W Lam and P D'Antonio, “Diffusion Coefficients”, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 104 no.3 pt. 2 September 1998 pg 1857. 136th meeting ASA paper 5aAA5.

13. Lam Y. W., “A boundary integral formulation for the prediction of acoustic scattering from periodic structures”, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 105(2), p.762-769, 1999.

14. Lam Y. W. and Drumm I., “An adaptive beam tracing method for room acoustics prediction”, invited paper, Joint ASA/EAA/DEGA Conference, Berlin, March 1999, Acustica Vol.85 Supplement 1, S64, 1999

15. Lam Y. W., “Sound propagation in the atmosphere”, invited paper, Proc. Of the 6th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, p.727-734, 1999.

16. Howarth M. and Lam Y. W. “An assessment of the accuracy of a hybrid room acoustics model with surface diffusion facility”, Applied Acoustics 60(2), pp.237-252, 2000.

17. Lam Y. W., “Editorial - Special Issue on surface diffusion in room acoustics”, Applied Acoustics 60(2), pp.111-112, 2000.

18. Drumm I. A. and Lam Y. W., “The adaptive beam tracing algorithm”, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 107(3), pp.1405-1412, 2000.

19. Sarwono J., Lam Y. W., “Auto-correlation Function Analysis of Javanese Gamelan Music Pieces”, ISSM 1999 (8-9 October 1999, Kassel, Germany).

20. Hargreaves T. J., Cox T. J., Lam Y. W., D'Antoni P., “Standard Diffusion Coefficients”, Proc. IoA(UK). 21(6) 195-200. October 1999.

21. Sarwono J., Lam Y. W., “Initial Time Delay Gap for Javanese Gamelan Music Concert Hall: An Auto-correlation Function Approach”, Proc. IoA(UK). 21(6) 47-54. October 1999.

22. Drumm I. A., Lam Y. W., “The adaptive beaming tracing algorithm”, Proc. IoA(UK). 21(6) 73-92. October 1999.

23. Lam Y.W., “An Overview of Modelling Techniques for Small and Large Performance Spaces”, Proc. IOA 22 Part 2, pp.297-304, 2000

24. Sarwono S. J. and Lam Y. W.,”The Acoustics of a Pendopo: A Typical Open-Sided Hall for Javanese Gamelan Music Performance”, Proc. IOA 22 Part 2, pp.305-314, 2000

25. Wu T.,Cox T. J., Lam Y. W., “From a profiled diffuser to an optimized absorber”, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 108(2), pp.643-650, 2000.

26. West M. and Lam Y. W., “Prediction of sound fields in the presence of terrain features which produce a range dependent meteorology using the Generalised Terrain Parabolic Equation (GT-PE) model”, Internoise 2000

27. Wu T., Lam Y. W., Cox T. J., “Extending the bandwidth of profiled sound absorbers”, Internoise 2000.

28. West M. and Lam Y. W., “A two way vertical interface Parabolic Equation (TV-PE) model for atmospheric propagation in the presence of severe terrain features”, 9th International Symposium on Long Range Sound Propagation, September 2000

29. Lam Y. W., "Ground and Meteorological Effects on Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere - Predictions and Measurements", International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration Vol. 5(3), pp.135-139, 2000.

30. Hargreaves T. J., Cox T. J., Lam Y. W. and D'Antonio P., “Surface Diffusion Coefficients for Room Acoustics: Free Field Measures”, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 108 (4), pp.1710-1720, 2000.

31. Sarwono S. J. and Lam Y. W., “Subjective Preference of Reverberation Time in a Javanese Gamelan Concert Hall”, ISSM 2000, October 2000, Paris, France.

32. Sarwono S. J. and Lam Y. W., “Subjective Preference of Initial Time Delay Gap in a Javanese Gamelan Concert Hall”, 140th ASA Meeting, paper 5pAA2, Newport Beach, CA, December 2000.

19-August 2002-5th October Featured: Andreyev Nikolay Nikolayevich

Andreyev Nikolay Nikolayevich

Andreyev Nikolay Nikolayevich


Academician Nikolay Nikolayevich Andreyev was born in 1880 in Moscow to a family of an office employee.

N. N. Andreyev entered the Moscow Higher Technical College in the fall of 1898, and he left it for the Moscow University in 1989, where he became a second-year student.

N. N. Andreyev continued his education at the Goettingen University in Germany in summer 1904, and, later, at the Basel University.

N. N. Andreyev presented his PhD thesis on "Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Effect of Temperature on Light Dispersion" in 1909.

N. N. Andreyev was awarded as a magister from the Scientific council of the Moscow University in September 1917.

N. N. Andreyev became the head of the Acoustical laboratory at the State Experimental Electrotechnical Institute in Moscow in 1921.

N. N. Andreyev published his review on physiological acoustics under the title "Keenness of Hearing" in 1924. The review appeared in the first issue of "Zhurnal prikladnoi fiziki" (Journal of Applied Physics).

He published his book "Fizika" (Physics) intended for nonprofessional readers in 1925.

Since 1926, Andreyev worked at the Leningrad Physicotechnical laboratory under the supervision of A. F. Ioffe. Here, Andreyev established a new Acoustical laboratory.

In summer 1928 he was sent together with a group of scientists from State Physicotechnical Institute to Germany, France, and Netherlands to become acquainted with the design of acoustic transducers and other achievements in piezoelectricity - a new and promising area of research at that time.

On 27-30 September 1931, the first All-Russian Acoustical conference was held in Leningrad. The conference was initiated by N. N. Andreyev and played an important role in the development of Soviet acoustics.

In 1940, Andreyev was invited by Academician S. I. Vavilov, director of the Lebedev Physical Institute, to fill the position of head of the new Acoustical laboratory organized at this institute. Andreyev accepted this invitation, and soon the leading acousticians from all Soviet Union gathered at his laboratory. In the early 1950 s, the laboratory represented in fact an independent institution. It occupied a new separate building that contained acoustic chambers and first-class equipment.

In 1953, N. N. Andreyev was elected member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In the same year, he became a member of the International Acoustical Commission.

In late 1953, the Acoustics Institute was established on the basis of the Acoustical laboratory of the Lebedev Physical Institute. The first director of the Acoustics Institute was L. M. Brekhovskikh - Andreyev's closest ally and colleague. Andreyev himself headed the laboratory specializing in biophysics of human and animal hearing.

In 1954, Andreyev became the editor-in-chief of the "Akusticheskii zhurnal" (Physical Acoustics). This journal was established to replace the previous "Trudy Komissii po akustike" according to Andreyev's recommendations.

On 27 July 1970, Andreyev was given the title of Hero of Socialist Labor and received his third Lenin order and the medal of Hammer and Sickle. Such distinguished award given to Andreyev at the day of his 90th birthday marked the recognition of the great services done by Academician Andreyev to Soviet acoustics.

On December 31, 1970 Nikolai Nikolaevich Andreyev passed away.

N. N. Andreyev was the founder of the school of Soviet acousticians, and the Acoustics Institute was named after him.

20-31 August 2002: Featured: Prof. MAtti Karjalainen...

Professor Matti Karjalainen,


Address: Helsinki University of Technology
Laboratory of Acoustics and Audio Signal Processing
P.O. Box 3000
FIN-02015 HUT
Visiting address Otakaari 5 A, 02150 Espoo
Room SE 211
Phone +358-9-451 2490
Fax +358-9-460 224
Email Matti.Karjalainen@hut.fi

Personal and professional history

Born: Hankasalmi, Finland, April 2, 1946.
M.Sc. (Dipl.Eng.): Tampere University of Technology, 1970 in Electrical Engineering
Lic. Tech. : Tampere University of Technology, 1974 in Electrical Engineering
PhD (Dr. Tech.): Tampere University of Technology, 1978 in Electrical Engineering
Associate professor : Helsinki University of Technology, 1980 in Acoustics
Docent (any idea what it means?) Tampere University of Technology, since 1982 in Speech Technology
Full professor: Helsinki University of Technology, since 1986 in Acoustics

Research profile (project leader and personal reasearch topics)

Speech synthesis projects (Finnish text-to-speech synthesis), 1973-80, 1987-90
Applications of speech technology to the disabled, 1974-80, 1987-89
Auditory modeling and its applications, 1981-86
Symbolic and knowledge-based signal processing, 1986-91
Programming environments for digital signal processing, 1980-82, 1986-
Speech recognition (Finnish), 1988-89, 1990-93
Applications of neural networks in speech, audio, and acoustics, 1990-
Speech database development (Finnish), 1992-
Modeling of spatial hearing and auralization, 1991-
Modeling of musical instruments and model-based sound synthesis, 1990-
Computer-based education in acoustics and signal processing, 1993-
Various other topics in acoustics, speech, signal processing, and music technology

Memberships in scientific organizations:

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
Acoustical Society of America (ASA)
Audio Engineering Society (AES)
International Computer Music Assiciation (ICMA)
European Acoustics Association (EAA)
Acoustical Society of Finland (Chairman 1985-89 and 1991-94)
Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society (Board member)
Electronic Engineering Society of Finland
Pattern Recognition Society of Finland
Biomedical Engineering Society of Finland

1-19/August 2002: Featured: Max Mathews ...

  Max Mathews ...

Max V. Mathews m.v.mathews@worldnet.att.net was born in Columbus, Nebraska, on November 13, 1926. He studied electrical engineering at the California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology receiving a Sc.D. in 1954.

He worked in acoustic research at AT&T Bell Laboratories from 1955 to 1987 where he directed the Behavioral and Acoustic Research Center. This laboratory carried out research in speech communication, visual communication, human memory and learning, programmed instruction, analysis of subjective opinions, physical acoustics, and industrial robotics.

From 1974 to 1980 he was the Scientific Advisor to the Institute de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM), Paris, France. In 1987 Mathews joined the Stanford University Music Department in the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) as Professor of Music (Research) where he developed a new pickup for electronic violins and a real-time computer system for music performance called the Conductor and Improv Programs and a 3D MIDI Controller called the Radio Baton.

AT Bell Labs in 1957, Mathews demonstrated synthesis of music on a digital computer with his Music I program. Music I was followed by Music II through Music V and GROOVE, all were involved in the composition and performance of music on and with computers. These programs have been influential in the development of computer music. For this pioneering work he has been called the "father of computer music," and most recently, "the great grandfather of techno!"

Max Mathews has conducted research on computer methods for speech processing, human speech production and auditory masking, and developed techniques for computer drawing of typography. He created the first computer singing, "Bicycle Built for Two," made famous by the Kubrick movie 2001 as the swan song of the dying computer. The developer of "Music V" synthesis software and "Groove," the first computer system for live performance, he is also the inventor of the Radio Baton, a computer-driven device that allows the user to conduct their own orchestral performances from MIDI files stored in the computer. This gives the user control over tempo, dynamics and balance among all the orchestral instruments. The commercial software product "Max" was based on Mathews’ ideas for a flexible, user-patchable sound generating system.

Mathews is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering and is a fellow in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Acoustical Society of America, the IEEE, and the Audio Engineering Society.

Among the more idiosyncratic forms of recognition he has received, Mathews’ Electronic Violin was featured recently on the cover of Playboy magazine. He has won the IEEE Gold Medal, Acoustical Society of America Silver Medal, and the Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres, République Française.

History of Computer Music According to Mathews Max Mathews wrote the following summary of his work in computer music for "Horizons in Computer Music", an event that took place March 8-9, 1997 at the Simon Recital Center of the School of Music, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana:

"Computer performance of music was born in 1957 when an IBM 704 in NYC played a 17 second composition on the Music I program which I wrote. The timbres and notes were not inspiring, but the technical breakthrough is still reverberating. Music I led me to Music II through V. A host of others wrote Music 10, Music 360, Music 15, Csound, Cmix, and SuperCollider. Many exciting pieces are now performed digitally.

"The IBM 704 and its siblings were strictly studio machines--they were far too slow to synthesize music in real-time. Chowning's FM algorithms and the advent of fast, inexpensive, digital chips made real-time possible, and equally important, made it affordable.

"Starting with the Groove program in 1970, my interests have focused on live performance and what a computer can do to aid a performer. I made a controller, the Radio-Baton, plus a program, the Conductor Program, to provide new ways for interpreting and performing traditional scores. In addition to contemporary composers, these proved attractive to soloists as a way of playing orchestral accompaniments. Singers often prefer to play their own accompaniments.

"Recently I have added improvizational options which make it easy to write compositional algorithms. These can involve precomposed sequences, random functions, and live performance gestures. The algorithms are written in the "C" language. We have taught a course in this area to Stanford undergraduates for two years. To our happy surprise, the students liked learning and using "C". Primarily I believe it gives them a feeling of complete power to command the computer to do anything it is capable of doing."

One of the Many Legends... Max Mathews spent the majority of his career at Bell Labs as an engineer, conducting behavioral and acoustic research. Legend has it that in the 1950's Max Mathews would pipe the music of his late night computer noodling through the Murray Hill labs intercom system. There's no information on the effect it had on the custodial staff, but it would hardly have raised an eyebrow in the collaborative research community of the time. Mathews' music was not an "official" AT&T project -- but he was allowed free access to any equipment he wanted to use on his "socially desirable" side project.

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